CRP: C Reactive Protein is a substance produced by the liver in response to inflammation

Increases during any inflammatory condition. It can be caused by a wide variety of conditions, from infection to cancer. High CRP levels can also indicate that there is inflammation in the arteries of the heart.

ESR: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), is a blood test that can reveal inflammatory activity in your body.

Moderately elevated ESR occurs with inflammation but also with anemia, infection, pregnancy, and with aging. A very high ESR usually has an obvious cause, such as a severe infection, marked by an increase in globulins, polymyalgia rheumatica or temporal arteritis

CBC: Complete Blood Count. Helps to diagnose Inflammation. High WBC levels, indicates some kind of infection or inflammation in the body

The test (which actually consists of several tests) gives details about three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The CBC reports how many cells are in the blood, and the physical characteristics of the cells, such as size, shape, and content. Abnormal CBC results help to diagnose:

  • Infections
  • Inflammation
  • Cancer
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune conditions (diseases in which the body’s immune system attacks the body)
  • Bone marrow failure
  • Abnormal development of bone marrow
  • Anemia
  • Dehydration, fluid loss
  • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies
  • Thalassemia (a blood disorder in which the production of red blood cells is abnormal)
  • Effects of chemotherapy
  • Effects of certain antibiotics
  • Effects of a number of medications in long-term or even short-term use

Levels of pro- inflammatory cytokines as IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-ɑ, INF-ɤ and GMCSF

Excessive chronic production of inflammatory cytokines contribute to inflammatory diseases, linked to different diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Dysregulation has also been linked to depression and other neurological diseases

Fibrinogen: Fibrinogen is a "positive" acute-phase protein, i.e. its blood levels rise in response to systemic inflammation

tissue injury, and certain other events. It is also elevated in various cancers.

LPA: Lymphocyte proliferation assay is used to determine lymphocyte activation and the cell-mediated immune responses

When B cells encounter their specific antigens, with the help of T cells, B cells are stimulated to undergo proliferation.  When T cells are activated by antigen-presenting cells and cytokines, T cells undergo proliferation.   The proliferation of B and T cells leads to clonal expansion and the initiation of the specific immune responses.